There have been many changes in fitness over the past 30 years. It's human nature to reminisce about times past. That's great but lets not forget that things change as well. This is certainly true in the area of health and fitness. "If you do what you have always done, you will get the results you have always gotten" is true, but what if the situation changes? Then what used to work is no longer a viable and effect way to get the results that we want. In this article I will outline seven items that have changed over the past 30 or so years that affect the way we view health, fitness, exercise and what is considered "best". Let's look at some of these changes in Fitness.
1. Activity level
This change in fitness is pretty obvious. We just do not move around as much as we used to 30 years ago.
Currently, the average sedentary person living in an urban setting takes 900-3000 steps a day. Uh … that's a puny number! In the journal of sports medicine existing literature was pulled together to set a general guideline of what a good number of steps per day would be
The author Dr. Catrine Tudor-Locke translated different physical activity into steps-per-day equivalents. A rate of fewer than 5,000 is classified as sedentary, 5,000 to 7,499 is low active, 7,500 to 9,999 is somewhat active 10,000 or more is active and 12,500 or more is very active. So what does 900 make us? Close to dead! But its not hard to imagine. Get up from, take elevator to car park, drive car, take elevator to office, sit down, order fast food, reverse the process to go home and go back to bed. Just to note, 1km is about 1300 steps.
Its gotten to the point where we have to purposely inconvenience ourselves to get our activity level up. Here are some suggestions (that actually show us how pathetic our average activity levels have become).
Park at the far end of the car park and walk to your building Instead of dropping the kids off in front of the school, park a couple of streets before it and walk them the rest of the way … 10,000 is actually considered a LOW estimate for children.
Go round the shopping centre or supermarket in a random. With today's super malls, this is a big thing!
Take the stairs instead of the lift or escalator (well if you work on the 50th floor, maybe climb halfway to start)
Give the dog an extra 5 minutes on his walk (we need it even more than him)
Stop emailing colleagues in the same office, instead go over and talk to them (shockingly effective considering how much email we send each day! … great for team building as well)
Go for a walk during your lunch break, walk to get your lunch or to find somewhere to eat your lunch
Get up and do something, run up and down the stairs for example during TV ads (no excuses here!)
Walk to the corner shop instead of driving or popping in on your way home
Walk to friends houses instead of driving
Take public transport and walk from the train station
Dr. David Bassett studied an Amish community to see what things were like in the past. These guys have no cars, no electricity and do hard manual labor to put food on the table. Its like time travel to the past. They eat 3 large meals a day with lots of meat, vegetables and natural starches like potatoes.
The 98 Amish adults Bassett surveyed wore pedometers for a week. The men averaged 18,000 steps a day. The women took an average of 14,000 steps.
The men spent about 10 hours a week doing heavy work like plowing, shoeing horses, tossing hay bales, and digging. The women spent about 3.5 hours a week at heavy chores. Men spent 55 hours a week in moderate activity; women reported 45 hours a week of moderate chores like gardening and doing laundry. Wow that's a lot of manual labor. Get a pedometer (its only like 20 bucks) and see how you fare.
2. Fat Percentages and Obesity
Activity level leads us right on to this point about obesity. The scary obesity rate is one of the most obvious changes in fitness.
The obesity rate among the participants in the study of the Amish population was 4 percent, as determined by body mass index, or BMI. The current obesity rate among the urban populations is 30% or more. OK the obesity percentages are a scary thing because obesity is already in the "VERY high risk of a lot of bad ways to die" category. There is still the overweight category (obviously fat but not hitting the medically obese range) to consider. These people are at a high risk already!
The total percentages of overweight + obese are really wild … hitting close to 70% in some cities. Compare this to the average in the 1980s. 10-15% obesity in most cities. It rose to the mid 20% in 1995 and its now at an all time high.
OK linked to point no.2 is of course diet. This is another obvious change in fitness. Its very simple actually. We now eat more refined foods (white bread, sugar, rice, flour, noodles). In the body these give pretty much the same response – FAT storage. The only time we should eat these items is immediately after hard training. As we can tell from point no.1, not much of any training is going on. But lots of eating is!
We also eat less fresh fruits, vegetables and meats. We eat more snacks like chips and cookies (which are also refined despite what advertisers claim).
These changes in fitness are made more troubling because even natural foods today are not as good for us as they used to be. Current farming methods make vitamin and mineral content in fruits and vegetables drop about 10-40% depending on the mineral. Corn fed meats do not give us as good an omega 6 to omega 3 ratio as we used to get from grass fed and free range animals. (That means not so many healthy fatty acids for us)
And of course, we are also simply consuming more calories. The Amish people in the study in point no.1 ate about 3600 calories / day for men and 2100 calories / day for women. Many sedentary people consume this much and more! How? Well a fully "featured" gourmet coffee from coffee bean or Starbucks can add up to 500 calories in an instant of caffeine folly.
That's 2 hours of walking for an average sized lady.
Just remember, calorie quality counts as well. 2000 calories of vegetables, meat and healthy fats is infinitely better than 2000 calories from french fries. Its close to impossible to get fat on the first, and nearly impossible not to get fat with the second.
I like this car analogy. If you had a 2million dollar dream car, would you put low grade or high grade petrol into it? High grade of course! Then why do some people put low grade filth into their bodies which are so much more important than the car we drive?
4. Games children play
The average child who grows up in an urban environment is a motor-skill weakling. As a hobby, I coach youth basketball. In our talent scouting, I have kids do a very simple drill of dribbling in and out and around cones. There are so many kids who can not do it and some who I think might fall down if asked to RUN around the cones without the ball! This is in contrast to the past where kids ran around, chased each other, played physical games and sports of all kinds, where the playground was the center of fun for young kids. This lack of activity not only causes a change in fitness for the child in his / her youth, but has a profound long term effect as well.
Of course this change in fitness is a result of a combination of possible factors.
Parents who only consider academic success to be worth striving for, who only give a child recognition and praise when they do well in academic subjects.
An education system who also values book knowledge above other things and takes away physical education classes to put more academic lessons in.
Poorly taught PE lessons that do not help a child develop motor skills in the key early years Busy double-income families where fathers are not free to play with their children (or do not care enough to … money is not everything dads)
The maddening computer game addiction situation where virtual life is more important than real life. I believe this is the reason for all the empty basketball courts in my neighbourhood. It used to be that teams lined up to play there. Now only people my age (late 20s to 30s) play. No young kids are there any more.
But actually, so what? The issue is that if kids stink at sport and physical activity, the well known psychological factor of "competence" comes is. Simply put, in general, we do what we are good at. If our next generation is poor at sport and physical activity, they are even less likely to do any of it! Which combined with items 1 to 3, make for a deadly health crisis for many countries. Obesity costs the UK 7.4 billion in national health care per year! If we do not help our kids, that's only going to grow to be a bigger and bigger burden for everybody.
5. Social Support
This is a more subtle change in fitness. People are communal animals. We stick with things because there is a supportive community behind us. Even drug and alcoholism rehab centers recognise this. We all need social support. But social links are getting weaker. And no, Friendster and MySpace links do not make up for it.
In a more connected but less close world (I know so many people who are only comfortable behind a computer screen and not in front of a real person) there is less social support than in the past (extended families, communal living, strong friendships within a neighbourhood etc) and its hard to stick with something which requires dedication and sacrifice like an exercise program. I'm not a sociologist but I do believe there is a reason that exercise classes do better in terms of membership than individualized training. Most of them certainly are not as effective as great individual coaching. But the social factor does come in when sustaining a lifestyle change is involved.
6. Free Time
This subtle change in fitness is pretty clear. We just have less time that we "own". Bosses, social, family and other commitments make free time a very precious commodity and it adds difficulty to the fact that time is our only non renewable resource. When we choose to exercise or spend time cooking to keep a healthy lifestyle, we are competing with movies, games, TV and other things for free time. We know that exercise is good for us, but it not only has to be good for us, it has to be BETTER in our minds than the latest episode of desperate housewives, or the latest computer game. That's the issue. We need to prioritize long term health over temporary fun.
7. Training methods
OK here is where we are doing well. 30 years ago the aerobics craze took the western world by storm. Its not a very good training method both in terms of results, and in terms of results per unit of time. Add that to the fact that we have such minimal time to train, we can not afford to train in a sub-optimal way. We know a lot more now. Fortunately for us, there are good methods that smart coaches use to improve training efficiency and get RESULTS even with less training time. Some of these include smartly designed resistance training programs, interval training and good assessment techniques to determine individual needs. If you have a coach like that in your corner, you can turn back the clock and avoid becoming one of the ever growing statistic of people who's health is headed in the wrong direction. Stay fit and strong and good luck!